Blaeu Atlas of Scotland, 1654
|Name:||Blaeu, Joan, 1596-1673|
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See these and much else in Jonas’ life of St Columban, which may be found in Bede and in Wallafrid Strabo, and in the life of St Gall, which may be found in Laurentius Surius; consult also Theodore of Campedon in his life of St Magnius, which may be found in Henry Canisius, Volume 4 (I think, for the work is not now to hand) of his Ancient Reading. More recent ecclesiastical writers may also be added.
Not long after this time Kilian came from Scotland with two companions Colonatus and Totuanus. Having received the authority to preach the Gospel from the Roman Pontiff Conon, they set out for Franconia; there Gosbert Duke of Franconia was baptised with his wife, children, and subjects, and they made a great seed-time of souls, and shortly illuminated the whole of Franconia with the saving faith of Christ. However when St Kilian saw that Duke Gosbert had with him in place of his wife his brother’s consort Geilana, a lascivious and impious woman, he rebuked him, lovingly advising him to dismiss her; when the wicked woman learned of this, she burned with anger and fury, and did not rest at all until she had had Kilian and his companions murdered. Now Kilian was the first Bishop of Würzburg; hence the Dukedom of Franconia, which Charlemagne bestowed on the Bishops of Würzburg, is commonly called St Kilian’s patrimony; further on the silver coins which the Bishops of Würzburg issue, is seen the figure and image of St Kilian, as Apostle and Patron of the whole of Franconia. See these and other matters in the life of St Kilian in Henry Canisius, Volume 5 of the Ancient Reading, and in Surius. After this, in the time of Pippin and Charlemagne, there came to Frisia, having received authority from the Roman Pontiff, the Scot St Boniface: some wrongly make him English, but that he was Scot is attested by Marianus Scotus in his chronicle, Tritheim on the famous men of the order of St Benedict, Hieronimus Platus on the good of the religious state, and very many more recent authors. Many people were brought to reverence of Christ not only in Frisia but also in Hesse, Thuringia, Westfalia and Saxony. Because of his great merits and the sancitity of his life he was made Archbishop of Mainz; he erected many new bishoprics in Germany, among others the Bishopric of Eichstadt, to which he appointed St Willibald, a Scot (whom also some ridiculously make English, and son of Richard King of England, although in England at that time there was no king of that name; and he is made a Scot by John Molan in his additions to Usuard, and Tritheim in the work cited above, with many more recent authors), and his disciple; he founded many monasteries, of which the chief one was the monastery of Fulda, in which Scots are received freely just as Germans. At last however when he had preached the Gospel in Frisia and saw some people obstinately persisting in the wicked cult of idols, he scattered and broke all their idols; on account of this the savages rushed on him and cruelly killed him. But St Boniface is saluted by all as the Apostle of Germany: see his life fully written by his disciple Willibald, which may be found in Canisius cited above; the life was later written at even greater length by Egilwald, as may be seen in Surius and Nicholas Serrarius on the affairs of Mainz.
In this same century the Scot St Patto came to Saxony to preach the Gospel of Christ; because of the outstanding merits of his life he was made Bishop of Werden in Westfalia, and finally was crowned with martyrdom on account of his faith in Christ. He was succeeded in the Bishopric by St Tanco, also a Scot; among his other successors he had Gortzlan, Isingor and Harruch, all Scots and Bishops of Werden, as is attested, to pass over others, by Albert Krantz in the Metropolis of Saxony. After this time John the Scot came to Saxony; having done strenuous work in converting infidels, he was finally made Bishop of Mecklenburg; after he had been piously and usefully in charge of this church for some time, he was slaughtered by the infidels on account of his faith in Christ. See on him Krantz cited above.
Further about the year of grace 1000, there came out of Scotland Coloman, son of Malcolm, first (if I recall correctly) King of Scots of that name. When he had travelled twice to the Holy Land and returned, he wished to undertake that same journey for yet a third time; after he had crossed various regions of Germany, he came to Austria; there he drew very many from the accursed superstitions of idols and demons to true reverence in God; finally he was taken and like some secret spy was crucifed with many bitter torments and later fixed to a cross, on which he most holily ended his life, famous for very many miracles, both during his life and after his death. His body is preserved honourably and religiously in the Melican monastery, in the vernacular Melk, about twelve German miles distant from the city of Vienna. These and many other things may be read in the office or Breviary of the monastery of Melk. And John Stadius, Historian of the Emperor Maximilian I, wrote the life of St Coloman in a Sapphic poem, which may be found in Laurentius Surius, in his lives of the Saints, and which begins thus:
As patron saint of Austria is sung
A flashing star, shining from the north,
Of Scottish race, ardent Coloman
Offspring of kings.
Thus therefore Coloman is recognised by all as Patron of Austria; on him one may also consult Cuspinian, likewise Matthew Rader in Bavaria Sancta, and Baronius in the annals. The time of his martyrdom is stated to have been the year 1012.
Very many other Scots preached the Gospel of Christ in Germany: but they will be mentioned immediately below, when we discuss the monasteries of the Saints in Germany.
ON THE MONASTERIES OF THE SCOTS
The first and most ancient monastery which we Scots had was in Germany, in the Argentinensian state, in the vernacular Strasburg, founded by the Scot St Florentius, Bishop there, about A.D.665; it was called the community of St Thomas of the Scots, and in it St Florentius himself was later buried. However this community was unjustly and without any right or reason transferred from the Scottish monks to Canons Regular of the German nation by Adelochus, Bishop of Strasburg, as I shall relate fully in my history. For this monastery see Surius in his Life of St Florentius, Gaspar Brusth on the Bishops of Germany, and other more recent writers. But before St Florentius a Scot Arbogastus was Bishop of Strasburg, who carried out his duty in a pious and praiseworthy manner, and instructed all the inhabitants of that city, where idolatrous practices were found, in the true knowledge of God; on him also consult the authors already cited.
After this many monasteries were founded in Germany for Scots, by William brother of Achaus, King of Scots, who entered into a perpetual treaty with Charlemagne, which even now persists. For this William did outstanding service in war for the Emperor Charles, and as he had no children, he made Christ and the Church heir to his goods. Hence he founded and endowed with ample revenues various communities in Germany for monks and religious men of his race. Chief among these was the monastery of St James at Regensburg, whose abbot was visitor and corrector of all the others. Others were founded by him, the monastery of St Martin of the Scots at Cologne, the monastery of St Giles of the Scots at Nuremberg, the monastery of the Scots at [Aquisgranum], and the monastery of St Peter consecrated outside the walls of the city of Regensburg; at the time of the war between Charles V and the Electors of the Augustan Confession it was destroyed, to prevent the enemy coming there and being able to fortify it for themselves or erect some kind of fortress.
Of all these monasteries none survives in our possession today, except the monastery of St James in the city of Regensburg; its income and revenues, on account of the continuous wars which rage in Germany, have been so reduced and exhausted, that they are scarcely sufficient to keep one or two religious. In addition the excessive prodigality of some of our earlier Abbots has had the effect of making the aforesaid monastery feel itself today so weighed down by debts and loans that, only for the annual interest on the capital sums, it is held to pay each year almost three hundred florins; as the monastery, its estates and lands being ravaged and laid waste by frenzied soldiery, cannot pay this sum, it has been reduced to the greatest straits and misery. For the creditors from this rush and push, threatening that, if they are not soon satisfied, they will arrest all our goods and possessions. But the debtors fashion excuses and delays. In short: everyone thinks that it is done and lamented with us, and certainly, unless almighty God thinks fit in his mercy to supply some means and remedy for us, I do not see how we can rise from so many waves of difficulties, nor in what way so old and noted a monastery and celebrated monument of our ancestors can be preserved. Further, the Emperor himself, in these recent assemblies at Regensburg, seeing the deplorable state and condition of our monastery, negotiated with the Roman Pontiff and other Princes of the Empire about transferring this monastery of ours from us to the Germans; so that if the Supreme Pontiff had not rejected the Emperor’s petition and stood boldly and stubbornly on our side, we should undoubtedly have been compelled to migrate somewhere else and yield our ancestral inheritance to foreigners of another race. O wretched and unfortunate are we, whom God has cast into these times, in which, unless He Himself averts it, we are to see such things with our eyes. I cannot but exclaim with the Prophet, Woe for us, we have sinned. What honest, true and real Scot could with dry eyes look on such a sad spectacle? Who could without tears observe the most noble communities and associations of this kind, founded by our ancestors in a pious and praiseworthy manner, owned by us in a continuous succession for so many centuries, ennobled by so many privileges and diplomas of Popes and Emperors, being reduced to the point that there is a danger of the true and ancient owners being ejected and them being seized unjustly by foreign colonists? But enough of this; I go on to other matters. When the Princes of Germany saw the exemplary life and piety of the Scots, they later began themselves to build Communities for the Scots. The first of them was Embricho, Bishop of Würzburg and Duke of East Francia, who in A.D.1139 founded for the Scots the monastery of St James outside the walls of the Herbipolensian city, in the vernacular Würzburg. The Scots still possess it, although its annual income is very slight and reduced because of continuous wars. I said